Tag Archives: Education

Shaping Childhood: The Significance of Educational Propaganda (Wow Comics No. 12)

© Copyright 2018 Kisha Rendon, Ryerson University


Comic books have been regarded through multimedia platforms, scattered on the spectrum of both print and film. When thinking about comics, we envision certain theatrical conventions that were popularized by the D.C. and Marvel American franchises. It would be safe to say that each of us have encountered a superhero movie, or at least an advertisement for one. Coincidentally though, we do not often encounter Canadian comic books in our time the same way people had encountered them during the years of 1941-1946. These years will be remembered as the “Canadian Golden Age of Comics” (“Canadian Golden Age”); when Canadian comics were a revered form of media, and served a greater purpose than providing simple entertainment. During this time, Canadian children turned to comics as an escape from reality, where stories of victory and war time toys would scatter the pages and fulfill their imaginations.

When analyzing an archived copy of Bell Features’ Wow Comic Issue No.12, I found a pattern in the structural scheme of the comic book. This specific issue held a total of six comics/storylines. Three of the said stories were war related with propagational connotations. This especially caught my attention because in comparison, the issue has eleven advertisements/newsletters that are educational/are related to the war effort.

Fig. 1. Front Cover (recto) of "Wow Comics Issue No.12" in four toned printing using the colours magenta, yellow, cyan, and black. The "Bell Features" 10 cent logo is seen on the right hand side underneath the large print words; "WOW COMICS".
Fig. 1. Front Cover (recto) of “Wow Comics Issue No.12”. April 1943, Bell Features Collection, Library and Archives Canada.

This can be exemplified on the back cover (verso) of the book where there is an advertisement for model airplanes following the comic “Whiz Wallace: Bombers to Victory” created by C.T. Legault (54), which happens to be centered around fighter pilots and aircrafts. Another obvious structural theme was the use of letters or cartoonish lettering over imagery in these advertisements/newsletters, althemore pronouncing the contrast from modern day advertising, which is highly based on imagery and film media. Comic books in this time heavily relied on the use and understanding of literary conventions, thus highlighting the weight at which advertisements/newsletters were used as educational tools.

Although the success of Canadian Comics were a result of the War Exchange Conservation Act (W.E.C.A.) enacted in 1939 (Thomas), through the exploration of the Bell Features Publication Wow Comics Issue No.12, it is reasonable to say that the attempt to refurbish the popular culture of comic books brought forward a medium to propagate Canadian nationalism and the war effort. As well, this research exemplifies that comics hold a larger issue surrounding the ideology of childhood and how children were perceived by the government. Through the exploration and analysis of this specific comic (Issue No.12), I will shed light on the hidden purpose the printing press served in the alternate use of comic books, and will further develop the reasons and educational values expected of children during this time.  

Birth of Printing Press: Coming to Comics

Fig. 2. Archived propagational poster from the Canadian War Savings Committee, printed in three tones (red, black, and white) utilizing the image of two children collecting war stamps to encourage the support of the war effort.
Fig. 2. Unknown. “Canada, War Savings Committee, ‘We’re doing our bit! We’re buying War Savings Stamps’ (Ottawa, n.d. [1942])”. War, Memory and Popular Culture Archives – The University of Western Ontario – London, Ontario, 1942. Wartime Canada http://wartimecanada.ca/sites/default/files/documents/War%20Savings%20Stamps.pdf. Copyright is in the Public Domain.
During the first world war, issues of censorship were circulating in Canada and amongst other countries. This time period highly relied on the printing press in order to convey announcements and war time news, which transformed the concept of print into “propaganda machine” (“Government Propaganda”). This propaganda paradigm follows in the time of the outbreak of the Second World War. Print was cheap to produce which provided as an effective source to promote the war effort and patriotism, while also doubling as a way to conserve the dollar. Newspapers were the prime example of an advocate of wartime broadcasting and easily became an agent in shaping/maintaining a sense of value. The enactment of the War Exchange Conservation Act propelled individualized production in Canada in attempt to save the Canadian dollar (Kocmarek 148). The prohibition included the halt on the importing of American magazines and comic books. A new industry for printing, independent from the United States, emerged from the importation ban.

Children would read comics as a pastime or form of entertainment. Thus, when the import of American comics was discontinued, the child industry was left open for exploitation. Publishers utilized the prohibition of American comics to establish Canadian comic printing companies such as Bell Features. Founders of Bell Features Publications utilized the publicity of the war time status to establish a Canadian printing press, especially by targeting influential youth who were adamant on supporting different gimmicks in contribution to war effort participation. This resulted in the eruption of the time period called the “Canadian Golden Age of Comics” (1941-1946).

Undercover Propaganda

This time brought to light new Canadian heroes, and thus, Canadian based comic book series came to life. To name a few iconic figures; “Crash Carson”, “Nelvana”, “Johnny Canuck”, and etc., were among most of which who followed the mold of an average patriotic citizen, turned sacrificial, brave superhero. Furthermore, Canadian comic books would specifically include true victory stories like that of “Tommy Holmes V.C.” (24) to instill patriotic ideologies in children, and further encourage enlisting in the war and their participation in the war effort. So although on the surface level, comics served as a form of entertainment, publishers would often times include propaganda in forms of advertisement and newsletters, including war toys and self promotion to support, therefore maintaining the war time environment and propagation. Interestingly, during the Golden Age of Comics, education became a crucial aspect in shaping children’s values (Cooke 2), leading back to why true war stories were included in the collection of comics in this issue, and developing the acceptability of “educational” propaganda in children’s entertainment. Through the inclusion of subtle value based advertisements and newsletter additions in between comics and victory stories, comic print cultivated a new level of propagation that changed the meaning of childhood during the war.

According to the Cambridge Dictionary, “propaganda” is defined as displays of often one sided idea/opinion based information displayed through images, broadcastings, or publications intentionally spread to influence people’s opinions. Propaganda was commonly seen during both the First and Second World Wars to do exactly this in regard to the upholding of patriarchal values and beliefs. The Cambridge definition of the word “propaganda” insinuates the use of subliminal messaging. In the Wow Comics Issue No.12, there are instances of comics that follow the idea of subliminal messaging. Taking the example of Parker’s Tommy Holmes once again, the comic follows the real life victory encounter of Tommy Holmes being a Canadian soldier, and how he won the Victory Cross. The educational value of this comic, shows to have propagational background in the sense of glorifying enlistment into the front line and educational value through the teaching of a real time event. This is amplified then, by the following overzealous inclusion of advertisements in the children’s print.

Advertisements are typically used to depict messages through mass media. Often times advertising is meant to persuade the purchase of goods or services (Goodis and Pearman), which can be exemplified in this comic issue through the promotion of model plane sets on the back cover (verso). The page is printed in four tone (red, yellow, black, and white) and is displayed with two miniscule drawings of the “Identoplane” box and a boy yelling. All other details on the page are written in different fonts and lettering that mimic/direct the way they are to be read. However, through the comparison of this advertisement against advertisements found in modern day, it is visually more word oriented versus the media we see now. In an article written by Beth Hatt and Stacy Otto in 2011, they discuss the use of visual culture and imagery in advertisements as a way for accessibility to the audience (512). Thus, by using word based advertisements and newsletters in children’s comic books, there needed to be a target audience who could read and understand the content, and were overall meant to be in possession of these comics.  

The Canadian Effort: Educating Youth

Fig. 3. Illustrated newsletter printed in black and white, and drawn by Canadian artist Al Cooper. Newsletter describes a German Nazi plane called the "Torpedo Aircraft", along with informational text boxes.
Fig. 3. Al Cooper. “Informational newsletter on the ‘Torpedo Aircraft'”. Wow Comics Issue No. 12, April 1943, p. 32. Bell Features Collection, Library and Archives Canada.

These findings lead to the question about how children were educated during the war time. The use of comics was an easy solution in educating children through advertisements and newsletters that actually served as politically driven propaganda. Ultimately, the most popular example of educational use in comic books leads back to the highly weighted importance of participating in the war effort. The advertisements for related Bell Features comic books advertise comics aimed toward both boys and girls. In analyzing Issue No.12 further, page 32 stood out as an independent/unique newsletter amongst the others. This newsletter is a stand alone page that has two text boxes with information on the “Torpedo Aircraft”. The page is accompanied by three illustrations of a Nazi German aircraft drawn by the infamous Canadian illustrator, Al Cooper. At first glance the newsletter could be mistook for an advertisement or a one panel comic due to its cartoon-like demeanour, but upon deeper analysis the page is a definite informational newsletter. The newsletter appears to be specifically beneficial to the male audience as it discusses the Torpedo Aircraft in two entire text boxes; which is an example of male gender content. However, during the war time schools as a whole became highly involved in the contributions to the war effort.

Through the outbreak of the war and the installment of the W.E.C.A, school began to revolve around supporting the front line. Educational systems led and focused on contributions to propagational campaigns that would help save the dollar. An example of this would be classrooms being transformed into sewing rooms for girls, where they would “learn” how to sew/knit for the Red Cross organization, and articles would go to servicemen and victims of bombed areas.

Fig. 4. Unknown. Archived. Captured in black and white, vintage photograph of three boys working on the mechanics of an aviator machine at Wester Technical School.
Fig. 3. Unknown. “Archived vintage photograph of boys working on aviator machine”. City of Toronto Archives
www.toronto.ca/archives, 1930, Toronto Guardian, City of Toronto Archives. Copyright is in the Public Domain.

Boys on the other hand were to “learn” how to produce scale models of aircrafts that would go toward training pilots and gunners. Furthermore, this explains why the verso of the comic advertising “Identoplanes” is printed in colour, and makes sense of the use of letters versus images as building aircrafts was associated with school. Education was being strategically interwoven into popular culture through the comic book medium. Moreover, students would often receive education on defence and war emergency training. The type of education included would be how to recognize enemy aircrafts and understanding how they function (Millar “Education”), which is the exact information included on the newsletter from page 32. This thus encompasses the image and value of education as presented to children through political propagation as it was important for students to be educated on certain war time concepts to better protect themselves.

Building Childhood: Concluding Thoughts

The government imposed many political standings over Canadians which is clearly presented through newspapers and printed propaganda, reaching out to parental figures at home, while children were more often concerned with new war toys and other popular culture novelties. School systems held the great responsibility over shaping the values and ideologies of children in a time where there was no structure of understanding or definite knowledge to when the war would end. The war time brought significant changes to the social environment of many families in Canada, which in turn, highlighted school as a facility of direction. Education taught children how to observe and retain knowledge from the world around them, and still plays an important role in shaping personal perspectives. It is important to recognize that children are impressionable and will reflect actions and mistakes. For example, when there is a high standard set on expectations of a noble soldier like Tommy Holmes, children will reflect on that image and mimic it’s value. Therefore, the manipulation of comics as war educated propagational mediums, holds potential power for abuse. Although comics served as entertainment, they were also popular tools used to educate children on serious topics ranging from political ideologies, moral values, and racial categorization. If used/misused with from an ignorant standpoint, there could have been severe consequences in the social development of war time children that would last far into the future.

The most interesting thing about analyzing the issue of childhood education through propaganda in comic books is the lack of thorough research done on this topic. The Golden Age of Comics arose multiple issues that have been overlooked in scholarly work such as: the importance of word oriented/educational advertisements and newsletters in children’s comic books and the purpose that they serve. The values of education in correlation to comic books and popular culture is almost nonexistent. This is concerning considering the weight at which the government influenced Canadian values and ideologies during the Second World War. Continually, there was minimal research regarding how children experienced the war time and war effort movements. Although young and impressionable, the social results of their own experience has not been thought to be analyzed thus far. It was through compiling this research that I found it difficult to produce a connective argument, as this argument does not yet exist, but should exist. It was not hard to point at a page in the comic book and correlate it to a post-war time issue/concern. Wow Comics embraces a great ordeal of information through example illustrations of propaganda and subliminal messaging in story lines. I believe that comic books are detrimental to future studies and analysis on World War II and the experiences of those who lived through it.  

In conclusion, through the analysis of the structure of the Wow Comics Issue No.12 and it’s significant use of advertising and newsletters, comic books are proven to have served as educational tools for children during the Second World War. The printing press and pulp print built an opportunity for publishers such as Cyril Bell, to bring forward publication firms such as Bell Features Comics and develop the initial platform for popular culture propaganda. However, it was the importance of education that ultimately motivated the inclusion of subliminal propaganda in comic books. Furthermore, this research envelopes the notion of the child as an important figure in the construction of social values through their impressionable nature, but also the leading figure of direction through their capability to mold the future of Canada. Essentially, the government simultaneously established manipulation and dependence on the education of children through comic books, locking themselves in a feedback loop entailing both the political figures and the children to rely on one another.   



Works Cited

Clemenso, Al, et al. Wow Comics, no. 12. Bell Features and Publishing Company Limited, April

1943, pp. 1-65. Bell Features Collection, Library and Archives Canada.


Cook, Tim. “Canadian Children and the Second World War | The Canadian Encyclopedia.” The

Canadian Encyclopedia, 12 Apr. 2016,


Cooke, Ian. “Children’s Experiences and Propaganda.” British Library, Creative Commons, 29

January 2014,


Cooper, Al. “Torpedo Aircraft.” Wow Comics, no. 12. Bell Features and Publishing Company

Limited, April 1943, p. 32. Bell Features Collection, Library and Archives Canada.


Good, Edmond. “Wow Comics Issue No.12” Wow Comics, no. 12. Bell Features and Publishing

Company Limited, April 1943, cover page (recto). Bell Features Collection, Library and

Archives Canada.


Goodis, Jerry and Brian Pearman. “Advertising.” The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Canada,

4 March 2015, https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/advertising.

Hatt, Beth, and Stacy Otto. “A Demanding Reality: Print-Media Advertising and Selling

Smartness in a Knowledge Economy.” Educational Studies, vol. 47, no. 6, 2011, pp.

507–26. Scholars Portal Journals, doi:10.1080/00131946.2011.621075.

Legault, C.T.. “Whiz Wallace: Bombers to Victory.” Wow Comics, no. 12. Bell Features and

Publishing Company Limited, April 1943, pp. 54-63. Bell Features Collection, Library

and Archives Canada. http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/e/e447/e011166674.pdf

Millar, Anne. “Education during the Second World War.” Wartime Canada,

http://wartimecanada.ca/essay/learning/education-during-second-world-war. Accessed 30

September 2018.

Parker. “Tommy Holmes V.C.” Wow Comics, no. 12. Bell Features and

Publishing Company Limited, April 1943, pp. 24-31. Bell Features Collection, Library

and Archives Canada. http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/e/e447/e011166674.pdf

“PROPAGANDA”  Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary.

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/propaganda. Accessed 20 November


“Save While Supporting the War.” Wartime Canada. 1942. The University of Western Ontario,

London, Ontario. War, Memory and Popular Culture Archives,



Thomas, Michael. “Canadian Comics: From Golden Age to Renaissance (Includes Interview).”

Digital Journal, 18 Aug. 2015,


nce/article/440981. Accessed 30 September 2018.

“WarMuseum.ca – Democracy at War – Information, Propaganda, Censorship and the

Newspapers.” Canadian War Museum, 14 Nov. 1940,


“Western Technical School – Boys Working on Aviation Motor.” Toronto Guardian. 1942.

Western Technical School, Toronto, Ontario. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1266, Item

19594, https://torontoguardian.com/2016/08/vintage-school-students-photographs/


Images in this online exhibit are either in the public domain or being used under fair dealing for the purpose of research and are provided solely for the purposes of research, private study, or education.


War of the Classes: Essays Originally Written for Adults

© 2014, Shelly Koren, Ryerson University

war of the classes048


Jack London’s War of the Classes which is held in Ryerson University’s Children’s Literature Archive was published in 1905 by M. A. Donohue in both New York and Chicago. This set of essays discusses the urgency to dismantle the capitalist government in America and replace it with a socialist one, as the current government was not providing for its people. It is thus unusual that his essays are considered children’s literature, since they are highly opinionated, and do not abide by the conventional style of children stories of the time.

During the 1900s children stories were meant to entertain the readers, as they were taught morals through adventure. London followed this style quite closely which therefore led to his popularity, and his title of the first millionaire author in America (McAleer 1). Despite London’s popularity and income he was not satisfied writing for children, and attempted to market for adults as well. It can therefore be established that London’s War of the Classes was not initially advertised for children, as it does not adhere to the norm of story-telling. If London’s essays were not originally meant for a young audience one could assume that his writing was too radical, as the adult audience may have not been prepared for his debasing of a capitalist lifestyle.

War of the Classes

Jack London’s work of essays establishes why he became a socialist, and how it would ultimately correct the turbulence present in America. His work is therefore controversial unto itself, as his audience seems to be those who are comfortable in their capitalist state. This is evident as poor children and adults were less well read due to the rampant inequalities which were present during the 19th and early 20th century (Vinovskis 313).

London emphasizes the conflict that is apparent between the employee and the employer, as it was the employer’s interest to reject the needs of the worker. He accomplishes this through terms such as the tramp and the scab. He describes the tramp as someone affected by the lack of employment opportunities, and is therefore trapped in a perpetual cycle. London claims that the term scab is a worker who works harder than their co-workers but is still paid the same, or even less wage. London describes the consequences of becoming a scab, as they are never given the opportunity to advance in society. It is in the chapter “The Question of the Maximum” where he establishes that every social movement will have its peak and downfall, and that socialism will be the most suitable replacement for the capitalist system. London therefore diminishes his credibility as an adult author in America, as his text does not appeal to their government.

Once “The Question of the Maximum” comes to an end London establishes that his text was too radical for his audience. He claims that the text was originally written in 1898 but was rejected as the editor maintained that it was “too radical [in] nature, forfeited the sum paid for it, and did not publish it.  Nor, offered far and wide, could any other editor of bourgeois periodicals be found who was rash enough to publish it” (London).

Class War in America

During London’s lifetime there were social advances for the lower class population, which is evident through the persistence to create a ubiquitous education system. This was usually justified in order to protect the American society rather than helping the lower class economically (Vinovskis 317). Despite this, public schools became more common and adult illiteracy declined. By 1860 every child in Massachusetts, including those from the middle class were able to acquire some sort of education (Vinovskis 323). Although there were noticeable advances, there has been argument that public schools were specifically designed to propel the existing inequalities and to perpetuate the capitalist economy, as middle class children were given more attention than poor students in such classrooms. Different states approached the topic of education in various ways, as some only offered private high school education. As a result, one could realize that high schools were not designed for lower class children to acquire an education. There is argument that this was accomplished in order to perpetuate the inequalities between the classes, because it was assumed that the lower class would not share the same values and goals as the rich (Vinovskis 327).

The class war London discusses is researched by John Martin, who claims that the upper class did not value the poor, thus making a class war inevitable (512). He also asserts that concerns of the working class did not make it into congress, as there were few people willing to represent them (Martin 520). As a result, the issues had to be discussed through bills which were not usually acknowledged by party members. The only way to escape this war was through class consciousness, which is the when the working class people are aware of their position in society (Martin 513). Unfortunately this also did not diminish the discrepancies between the classes, as violence erupted between the classes in Colarado, Idaho, and San Francisco (Martin 515). This is the war London is facing, and the context of his essays.

Children Literature in the 1900s

London wrote most of his children stories between 1899 and 1907, and then later began to write for an older audience (Ward 92). In America London was incredibly famous for his children stories such as The Call of the Wind, The Sea-Wolf, and Martin Eden (Ward 92), as they abided by the norm of children stories during the time period. The guidelines of children’s stories are described by Mary Mapes Dodge, the editor for St. Nicholas Magazine, as she claims that children’s literature should entertain throughout the story (Ward 93). This illuminates the presence of the popular script of the hero and heroines who were good children with minor faults but also virtues. The most common plots were those where a child learned a lesson or saved the day, a theme which is not depicted in War of the Classes. London’s work of essays is further separated from the children literature genre which is highlighted by Dodge Magazine, as it distinguishes the reading material of adults and children: adults read informative periodicals, while children craved stories that were pleasurable (Ward 93).

This table represents what London refers to as the fight for financial superiority between American and the United Kingdom

London began writing for children because he was seeking a market for his work early in his career, which was given to him by the children’s magazines such as The Companion, St, Nicholas, and Holiday (Ward 92). Despite London’s aforementioned popularity, he did not think highly of his role as a children’s writer, but continued due to the money it granted him (Ward 93). It can therefore be extrapolated that London’s work of essays was not originally meant for children, as his stories rarely deviated from the norm. London’s work is further separated from the typical style of children’s literature due to its total lack of illustrations throughout the work of essays. Instead, these images are replaced with statistics and tables which establish the discrepancies between upper and lower classes. War of the Classes thus resembles Dodge’s description of adult magazine content, as it is informative rather than entertaining.


What is curious about London’s War of the Classes is the lack of articles regarding its reception, especially because his children stories were highly revered. Unlike his popular stories, his essays were difficult to research as I could find very few articles which explicitly mentioned the essays by name. One could therefore establish through the lack of reception and the aforementioned difficulty to publish the essays, that his work was too radical for his audience, thus diminishing its popularity. This is also clear through a newspaper article in the New York Times which was written in 1906, a year after London’s War of the Classes was available. While the article does not explicitly mention London’s essays, it portrays him in a radical manner due to the way he promotes his socialist ideologies. This is evident as the article references Yale professors who were anxious from his speech which expressed his opinion to deconstruct the bourgeois society (“Class War” 8).

Unlike the above article, London’s work of essays is explicitly mentioned in an article written in Vogue Magazine. In the article London is described as an acclaimed author for his classic children stories. It then goes on to explain his set of essays, and how it is an intriguing approach to society while also illuminating the holes in his argument. What is curious is how the column confesses that London is “economically […] rather shallow” (Harrison 790), as if to belittle his authority in the discussion of economics. In doing so, the article immediately allows their reader to negate London’s ideas. What is also significant is that Vogue reviewed his  essays, a magazine which was meant for the elites in society (Haye 129). One could therefore establish that London’s book was not meant for children, but instead for the elite individuals who frequented Vogue magazine; readers who were comfortable with their capitalist lifestyle.

London and Money

As already mentioned London was an incredibly famous writer in America due to his children stories. It is therefore curious that London complains about his income, which is evident in letters that he sends to Winston Churchill, as he requests to discover the rates Churchill receives for English and American magazines. One may consider this letter to be odd, as in 1909 his income from royalties was about $75000 (McAleer 4). London’s popularity as a children’s writer swiftly provided him with a significant sum of money. It can therefore be understood that London wanted his text to make the most amount of money as possible, which further separates the notion of War of the Classes from children’s literature. If his goal was to make money, London would not write a set of essays for children that was so dissimilar from what they were accustomed to.

Analysis and Conclusion

The ideological war that London reflects on in War of the Classes blatantly objects to the capitalist government in America by maintaining that it perpetuates rampant inequalities for the working class. It is thus unusual that London’s work is held at the Children Literature Archive, as his writing does not resemble the popular motifs which are commonly found in his children stories. The lack of articles regarding War of the Classes reception is thus understandable, as his work was too radical which was why it was not immediately published. One could assume that his writing was intended for a sophisticated upper class demographic, as he was referenced by both Yale professors and Vogue magazine, which promoted an elitist lifestyle. It is significant to note that money was incredibly essential for London, as it seems as though he is consistently looking for ways to acquire more. This also debunks the idea that his work is for children, as he wrote in a way that would compel his audience, as it promised him popularity and wealth. The War of the Classes is therefore a work of essays intended for adults, as it was opinionated and informative as opposed to entertaining.

 Works Cited

Link to War of the Classes

Link to CLA Exhibit

“Class War.” New York Times 1 Feb. 1906: 8. ProQuest. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.

Harrison, Marie. “What They Read: War of the Classes.” Rev. of War of the Classes. Vogue May-June 1905: 790. ProQuest. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.

Haye, Amy De La. “Vogue and the V&A Vitrine.” Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture 10.1 (2006): 127-51. Academic Search Premier. Web. 23 Mar. 2014.

London, Jack. War of the Classes. Chicago/New York: M. A. Donohue, 1912. Print. Children’s Literature Archive: Ryerson University.

Martin, John. “Socialism and the Class War.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 23.3 (1909): 512-27. JSTOR. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.

Mcaleer, Joseph. “Jack London’s London Publisher.” Studies in American Naturalism 6.1 (2011): 1-24. Project Muse. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.

Titus, Warren I., and Jack London. “Two Unpublished Letters of Jack London.” California Historical Society Quarterly 39.4 (1960): 309-10. Jstor. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.

Vinovskis, M. A. “Schooling and Poor Children in 19th-Century America.” American Behavioral Scientist 35.3 (1992): 313-31. Scholars Portal. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.

Ward, Susan. “Jack London as a Children’s Writer.” Children’s Literature 5.1 (1976): 92-103. Project Muse. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.